Phage display

  • Larger primary libraries

    • Up to 100 billion with recombination​


  • Selection from naive libraries

  • Relatively straightforward

  • General familiarity with E. coli ​​

  • Soluble scFv or Fab easily made in E. coli

  • Selection is a "black box"

  • Antibody must be expressed and purified to measure affinity

  • Repertoires incompletely sampled

Yeast display

  • Smaller primary libraries

    • Up to 100 million with gap repair​

    • Immune and affinity maturation

  • Naive library selection more challenging​

  • Requires flow or magnetic sorting

  • Less general familiarity with yeast

  • Need to subclone to make native antibody fragments

  • Precise selection calibration

  • Direct antibody characterization on yeast surface without purification

    • Affinity, epitopes​

  • Repertoires ​sampled more completely



By selecting first from our large highly functional naive phage antibody libraries and then transferring the selection outputs to yeast display for further sorting, the advantages of both systems can be exploited. The massive initial diversity in naive phage libraries is reduced to a diversity manageable by yeast display, allowing precise calibration of selection conditions.

© 2019 by Specifica Inc.